The counter process to deduction. That is, a reasoning from the greater
to the less, from the whole to the part, from the universal to the
particular. Induction on the other hand leads from the particular up to
So far all is clear, but the word is used in
different though related senses. It sometimes denotes the form
of reasoning by which we thus ascend from particulars to
universals, which is expounded by Aristotle,(1) sometimes the
collection of examples, and the experiments by whose result we
conceive ourselves warranted in doing this, and sometimes the
result itself as a process of thought whereby we pass from the
limited instances to an indefinite, or as men call it infinite,
law, the process termed by P. Gratry transcendence.
In the sciences entitled Inductive the word is
generally taken in a still greater breadth of meaning, and as the late
Professor De Morgan truly observed of such induction, "its instruments
are induction properly so called, separation of apparently related, but
really distinct, particulars,—mathematical deduction, ordinary logic,
&c. It is the use of the whole box of tools." (2)
(1) Analyt. Pr. II. 23.
(2) DE MORGAN, Formal Logic, pp. 215, 216.