Judgment. The faculty, as its very name implies, whereby the mind
pronounces on its perceptions, and the various notions to which they
give rise. It is easy to see that in such an act two of such notions
must be brought together. To exercise judgment on any matter, I must
affirm or deny something of it, and thus there are two elements brought
together, the matter itself, and that which is affirmed or denied of it.
Judgments expressed in words are called propositions, and the
two concepts which they bring together, terms. The consideration
of them occupies what is generally made the second part of logic. The
two terms are entitled respectively the subject and the predicate, or by
the French the subject and the attribute.
Judgments are divided into analytic
and synthetic. An analytic judgment is that in which the
predicate is involved in the subject, as is the case with all
definitions and many propositions besides. Such ought not to be
regarded as tautologous, for, though in their case it is
impossible to think the subject without recognising the
predicate as a necessary constituent of the former, its being so
is not always known till due consideration has been given, and a
clear addition is thus made to our knowledge.
Synthetic judgments are such as bring together two notions of which the
one does not involve the other, e. g. the rose is red. Neither the
notion rose contains the notion red, nor does the latter the former.
There is thus a synthesis of two concepts.
Analytic and synthetic judgments have likewise been called respectively
reciprocal or substitutive, and attributive.