Diccionario filosófico
Voltaire.
Complete edition

Diccionario de Filosofía
Brief definition of the most important concepts of philosophy.

 

A Dictionary of English Philosophical Terms Francis Garden

Biografías y semblanzas Biographical references and lives of philosophers

Brief introduction to the thought of Ortega y Gasset

History of Philosophy Summaries

Historia de la Filosofía
Explanation of the thought of the great philosophers; summaries, exercises...

Historia de la Filosofía
Digital edition of the History of Philosophy by Jaime Balmes

Historia de la Filosofía
Digital edition of the History of Philosophy by Zeferino González

Vidas, opiniones y sentencias de los filósofos más ilustres
Complete digital edition of the work of Diogenes Laertius

Compendio de las vidas de los filósofos antiguos
Fénelon

A brief history of Greek Philosophy
B. C. Burt

 

A SHORT HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY

 

INTRODUCTION

Part I. GREEK PHILOSOPHY


Its origin and character

PHYSICAL PERIOD
MONASTIC THEORIES
PLURALISTIC THEORIES

MORAL PERIOD
THE SOPHISTS
SOCRATES. Cynics and Cyrenaics

SYSTEMATIC PERIOD
PLATO
ARISTOTLE

Part II. PHILOSOPHY IN THE GRECO-ROMAN WORLD

ETHICAL THEORIES
Stoicism. Epicureanism
Scepticism

RELIGIOUS TENDENCIES
Roman Moralists: Seneca, Epictetus, M. Aurelius
Alexandrian Mystics: Philo, Plotinus, Proclus

Part III. PHILOSOPHY OF MIDDLE AGES

THE PATRISTIC PERIOD Augustine and Church Fathers

SCHOLASTIC PERIOD Nominalism and Realism

PLATONIC INFLUENCE
Anselm, Abelard, Peter Lombard

ARISTOTELIAN INFLUENCE
1. Alexander of Hales, Albertus Magnus, Thomas Aquinas
2. Duns Scotus, Francis of Assisi, William of Occam
 

Part IV. REVIVAL OF PHILOSOPHY

TRANSITION PERIOD
1. Revival of Learning
2. Reformation
3. Rise of Sciences
Bruno, Böhme, Montaigne

REALISTIC TENDENCY
Bacon
Gassendi
Hobbes

IDEALISTIC TENDENCY
Descartes

PANTHEISTIC TENDENCY
Geulinx, Occasionalism
Malebranche, Pantheism
Spinoza, Acosmism

Part V. PHILOSOPHY OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT

[Introduction]

SECT. I. ENLIGHTENMENT IN BRITAIN
Empiricism-Locke
Development of empiricism-Berkeley
Sceptical Conclusion-Hume

THEOLOGICAL AND ETHICAL QUESTIONS
Natural Philosophy
Theological Controversy
Ethical Theories
Scottish Philosophy

SECT. 2. ENLIGHTENMENT IN FRANCE
Earlier Rationalism
Bossuet, Fontenelle, Bayle, Montesquieu, Condillac, Helvetius
Materialistic Tendencies
Voltaire, Diderot, D'Alembert,  La Mettrie, Holbach, Rousseau

SECT. 3. ENLIGHTENMENT IN GERMANY
INDIVIDUAL IDEALISM—LEIBNITZ

FOLLOWERS OF LEIBNITZ
Thomasius, Tschirnhausen, Wolff

POPULAR PHILOSOPHY
Mendelssohn, Nicolai
Lessing

Part VI. GERMAN IDEALISM


SECT. I. CRITICAL PHILOSOPHY—KANT
INTRODUCTION

KANT'S THEORETIC PHILOSOPHY

KANT'S MORAL PHILOSOPHY

PHILOSOPHY OF ART AND RELIGION

SECT. 2. DEVELOPMENT OF IDEALISM

PHILOSOPHY OF FEELING
Hamann, Herder, Jacobi
Schiller and Humboldt

SUBJECTIVE IDEALISM—FICHTE
1. Science of Knowledge
2. Its Theoretic Principles
3. Its Practical Sphere

OBJECTIVE IDEALISM—SCHELLING
1. Philosophy of Nature
2. Philosophy of Identity
3. Mythology and Revelation

ROMANTIC SCHOOL
1. Novalis and Schlegel
2. Baader and Krause
3. Schleiermacher

 

SECT. 3. ABSOLUTE IDEALISM—HEGELIANISM
CONCEPTION AND METHOD
STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
REACTION AGAINST HEGELIANISM
1. Herbart
2. Beneke
3. Schopenhauer

Part VII. MOVEMENTS SINCE HEGEL TO THE PRESENT


GERMAN THOUGHT—AFTER HEGEL
1. Influence of Hegelianism
2. Materialistic Tendency—Haeckel
3. Idealistic Tendency
Fechner, Lotze, Hartmann, Wundt
4. Modern Psychology
5. Neo-Kantianism
Dühring, Schuppe, Ritschl
6. Eucken and Activist Tendency

FRENCH THOUGHT—FROM THE REVOLUTION
1. Cousin and Eclecticism
2. Comte and Positivism
3. Religious Philosophy
4. Philosophy of Development—Taine, Renan, Fouillée

BRITISH PHILOSOPHY IN THE VICTORIAN ERA
1. Utilitarianism—Bentham and Mill
2. Evolution—Darwin and Spencer. Maurice, Newman, Martineau
3. Influence of German Idealism. Caird, Green, Bradley, etc.

THE TREND OF THOUGHT IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY
Anti-Conceptualism—Bergson
Pragmatism—Wm. James
Neo-Realism. Revival of Idealism in Italy. The Philosophy of the Gifford Lectures

 

CONCLUSION

 

BOOKS OF REFERENCE

 

 

A SHORT HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY

BY
ARCH. B. D. ALEXANDER, M.A., D.D.
(Alexander, Archibald Browning Drysdale, 1855-1931)

AUTHOR OF "THE SHAPING FORCES OF MODERN RELIGIOUS THOUGHT", "THE ETHICS OF ST. PAUL", "CHRISTIANITY AND ETHICS," ETC.

THIRD EDITION - REVISED AND ENLARGED
GLASGOW - MACLEHOSE, JACKSON AND CO.
PUBLISHERS TO THE UNIVERSITY - 1922

CONTENTS

PREFACE

Increased attention has been devoted in recent years to historical studies. It will not be assumed that the history of action is worthier of consideration than the history of thought. While a number of books dealing with particular periods of philosophy have been written, it is somewhat remarkable that few, if any, English works have appeared treating of its general history. No subject is more frequently lectured upon in German Universities than the history of philosophy, and many of the larger treatises we possess are the products of such courses of lectures—some of the most notable of these have been made available through translation. But with the exception of Lewes' Biographical History—a book which is now half a century old, and one written to discredit all philosophy—and a small handbook in the Bohn edition which only came into my hands when my own book was completed—I know of no purely British work which treats of the entire course of European speculation. Though I dare not flatter myself that I have succeeded in supplying the want, it seems to me that there is a need for such a volume. The true introduction to philosophy is its history. For students and those who are interested in the progress of thought it is desirable to have a book of orientation in which one may discover the standpoint and significance of a writer individually and in relation to his times. Such is the aim of this "Short history of philosophy." I have called it a short history, because, though it seeks to furnish fuller information than may be derived from a mere outline or handbook, it does not profess to compete with larger works, such as those of Erdmann, Zeller or Kuno Fischer.

I have endeavoured to indicate the salient features rather than to give an exhaustive account of the successive systems of philosophy, and have attempted to show the place and influence of each in the evolution of thought.

 

I have included in the History an account of some German writers who, though not strictly regarded as philosophers, have exercised a powerful influence upon speculative thought as well as upon general culture. I have also devoted a larger space to English and Scottish thinkers than is usually assigned to them in German histories. Finally, I have sought to add to the value of the book by giving a resume of the progress of thought in our own country and on the Continent in the nineteenth century, and by bringing the history of philosophy down to our own day. 

It would be impossible to enumerate all the authorities to which I am indebted. I have made use of most of the larger German and French histories, and have consulted many of the writers who treat of special periods. While acknowledging my obligations to Hegel, Erdmann, Windelband, Kuno Fischer, Falckenberg, Zeller, Ferrier, Seth, Adamson, Caird, Green, and others, I may say that in dealing with the more important writers and with many of the lessen I have studied their own works.

A list of the chief writings of each author has been given, but it has not been deemed necessary to cumber the text with a multitude of references.

For the aid of students a fairly full bibliography has been supplied, while an index of names and topics has been added.

But for the kindly interest and helpful suggestion of Professor Jones of Glasgow University, who read some parts of the MS., the book would have been more imperfect than it is. He will allow me the satisfaction, I trust, of recording my sincere thanks.

LANGBANK,
GLASGOW, May, 1907.


PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION

That a second edition of this volume should be called for within little more than a year of its publication indicates that there was need for a book of the kind.

I am gratified with its reception both at home and abroad, and I have to thank private friends and others unknown to me who have made suggestions. In the present edition I have endeavoured to profit by these criticisms. The whole work has been revised and the sections on Greek Philosophy completely rewritten and enlarged, while the closing chapters on recent tendencies have been considerably amplified. I have made use of some additional authorities and consulted others which have appeared since my own volume was published. Of these I may mention in particular Diels' Doxographi Graeci, Aristotle's De Anima by Hicks, Burnet's new edition of Early Greek Philosophy, Adam's Gifford Lectures on Greek Thinkers, Vorlaender's Geschichte der Philosophie, James' Pragmatism, Watson's Philosophical Basis of Religion, Höffding's Moderne Philosophen and Siebert's Geschichte der neueren Deutschen Philosophie. To these authors and to others too numerous to mention I acknowledge my indebtedness.

LANGBANK, October, 1908.
 

PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION

In responding to the call for a third edition of this volume I have taken the opportunity of bringing the history up to date by rewriting the last chapter under a new title, " Philosophy in the Victorian Era", presenting a fuller view of Mill and the Utilitarians, of Darwin and the Evolution Theory, of Spencer and the Synthetic Philosophy, and of the New Idealism of which Green, Caird, Bradley were the protagonists. I have also added a new chapter which discusses some recent tendencies of the Twentieth Century, such as Bergson's Creative Evolution, Pragmatism and the Neo-realistic School. In other respects, with the exception of some slight changes in phraseology and a few supplementary paragraphs in different parts of the book in order to bring it into line with recent authorities, the work remains, in form and contents, substantially the same.

If, in the past, the volume has proved in any measure helpful to students of philosophy and others interested in the historical development of thought, I may venture to hope that, in spite of its shortcomings, this "Short History" in its amended form may help to fill the gap which has previously existed in this country between the "Mere outline" and the more elaborate and exhaustive treatises of Continental origin.

LANGBANK, June 1922.
 

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

Conception. History. Division

Part I. GREEK PHILOSOPHY

Its origin and character

SECT. 1. PHYSICAL PERIOD

Chap. I. EARLY MONASTIC THEORIES

1. Milesian School

2. Pythagorean School

3. Eleatic School

Chap. II. PLURALISTIC THEORIES OF CHANGE AND MULTIPLICITY

1. Heraclitus

2. Empedocles

3. Democritus

4. Anaxagoras

SECT. 2. MORAL PERIOD

Chap. I. THE SOPHISTS

Chap. II. SOCRATES. Cynics and Cyrenaics

SECT. 3. SYSTEMATIC PERIOD

Chap. I. PLATO

1. Logic

2. Physics

3. Ethics

Chap. II. ARISTOTLE

1. General Character and Logic

2. Theoretic Philosophy—Metaphysics and Physics

3. Practical Philosophy—Ethics and Politics

4. Productive Philosophy—Art and Poetry

Part II. PHILOSOPHY IN THE GRECO-ROMAN WORLD

Chap. I. ETHICAL THEORIES

1. Stoicism

2. Epicureanism

3. Scepticism

Chap. II. RELIGIOUS TENDENCIES

1. Roman Moralists—Seneca, Epictetus, M. Aurelius

2. Alexandrian Mystics—Philo, Plotinus, Proclus

Part III. PHILOSOPHY OF MIDDLE AGES

Chap. I. THE PATRISTIC PERIOD—AUGUSTINE AND CHURCH FATHERS

Chap. II. SCHOLASTIC PERIOD—NOMINALISM AND REALISM

Chap. III. PLATONIC INFLUENCE

Anselm, Abelard, Peter Lombard

Chap. IV. ARISTOTELIAN INFLUENCE

1. Alexander of Hales, Albertus Magnus, Thomas Aquinas

2. Duns Scotus, Francis of Assisi, William of Occam

Part IV. REVIVAL OF PHILOSOPHY

Chap. I. TRANSITION PERIOD

1. Revival of Learning

2. Reformation

3. Rise of Sciences

Bruno, Böhme, Montaigne

Chap. II. REALISTIC TENDENCY

1. Bacon

2. Gassendi

3. Hobbes

Chap. III. IDEALISTIC TENDENCY

1. Descartes, Individualism

Chap. IV. PANTHEISTIC TENDENCY

1. Geulinx, Occasionalism

2. Malebranche, Pantheism

3. Spinoza, Acosmism

Part V. PHILOSOPHY OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT

[Introduction]

SECT. I. ENLIGHTENMENT IN BRITAIN

Chap.I. EMPIRICISM—LOCKE

1. Source of Ideas

2. Classification of Ideas

3. Nature and Limits of Knowledge

Chap. II. DEVELOPMENT OF EMPIRICISM—BERKELEY

1. Unreality of Material Things

2. Spiritual Beings alone Real

3. God the Author of Ideas

Chap. III. SCEPTICAL CONCLUSION—HUME

1. Impressions and Ideas

2. Causality and Association

3. Duty and Utility

Chap. IV. THEOLOGICAL AND ETHICAL QUESTIONS

1. Natural Philosophy—Newton, Hartley

2. Theological Controversy—English Deism

3. Ethical Theories—English Moralists

4. Scottish Philosophy—Reid, Stewart, Hamilton

SECT. 2. ENLIGHTENMENT IN FRANCE

Chap. I. EARLIER RATIONALISM

1. Bossuet, Fontenelle, Bayle

2. Montesquieu, Condillac, Helvetius

Chap. II. MATERIALISTIC TENDENCIES

1. Voltaire, Diderot, D'Alembert

2. La Mettrie, Holbach—'Systeme de la Nature

3. Revolt of Rousseau

SECT. 3. ENLIGHTENMENT IN GERMANY

Chap. I. INDIVIDUAL IDEALISM—LEIBNITZ

1. Theory of Monads

2. Pre-established Harmony

3. Theory of Knowledge

4. God and the World

5. Freedom and Morality

Chap. II. FOLLOWERS OF LEIBNITZ

1. Thomasius

2. Tschirnhausen

3. Wolff

Chap. III. POPULAR PHILOSOPHY

1. Mendelssohn

2. Nicolai

3. Lessing

Part VI. GERMAN IDEALISM

SECT. I. CRITICAL PHILOSOPHY—KANT

INTRODUCTION

Chap. I. KANT'S THEORETIC PHILOSOPHY

1. Transcendental Aesthetic

2. Transcendental Analytic

3. Transcendental Dialectic

Chap. II. KANT'S MORAL PHILOSOPHY

1. Source and Contents of Moral Law

2. Kingdom of Ends and 'Summum Bonum'

3. Theory of Rights and Duties

Chap. III. PHILOSOPHY OF ART AND RELIGION

1. Aesthetic Judgment

2. Teleological Judgment

3. Views of Religion

SECT. 2. DEVELOPMENT OF IDEALISM

Chap. I. PHILOSOPHY OF FEELING

1. Hamann

2. Herder

3. Jacobi

4. Schiller and Humboldt

Chap. II. SUBJECTIVE IDEALISM—FICHTE

1. Science of Knowledge

2. Its Theoretic Principles

3. Its Practical Sphere

Chap. III. OBJECTIVE IDEALISM—SCHELLING

1. Philosophy of Nature

2. Philosophy of Identity

3. Mythology and Revelation

Chap. IV. ROMANTIC SCHOOL

1. Novalis and Schlegel

2. Baader and Krause

3. Schleiermacher

SECT. 3. ABSOLUTE IDEALISM—HEGELIANISM

Chap. I. CONCEPTION AND METHOD

1. Hegel's Life and Works

2. Main Features of System

3. Dialectic Method

Chap. II. STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT

1. Logic or Science of the Idea

2. Philosophy of Nature

3. Philosophy of the Mind

A. Subjective Spirit

B. Objective Spirit:

a. Law and Morality

b. Social Ethics

c. Philosophy of History

C. Absolute Spirit:

1. Art

2. Religion

3. Philosophy

Chap. III. REACTION AGAINST HEGELIANISM

1. Herbart

2. Beneke

3. Schopenhauer

Part VII. MOVEMENTS SINCE HEGEL TO THE PRESENT

Chap. I. GERMAN THOUGHT—AFTER HEGEL

1. Influence of Hegelianism

2. Materialistic Tendency—Haeckel

3. Idealistic Tendency

Fechner, Lotze, Hartmann, Wundt

4. Modern Psychology

5. Neo-Kantianism

Dühring, Schuppe, Ritschl

6. Eucken and Activist Tendency

Chap. II. FRENCH THOUGHT—FROM THE REVOLUTION

1. Cousin and Eclecticism

2. Comte and Positivism

3. Religious Philosophy

4. Philosophy of Development—Taine, Renan, Fouillée

Chap. III. BRITISH PHILOSOPHY IN THE VICTORIAN ERA

1. Utilitarianism—Bentham and Mill

2. Evolution—Darwin and Spencer

Maurice, Newman, Martineau

3. Influence of German Idealism

Caird, Green, Bradley, etc.

Chap. IV. THE TREND OF THOUGHT IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

1. Anti-Conceptualism—Bergson

2. Pragmatism—Wm. James, etc.

3. Neo-Realism

Revival of Idealism in Italy

The Philosophy of the Gifford Lectures

CONCLUSION

BOOKS OF REFERENCE

 

 

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