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A SHORT HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY

ARCHIBALD B. D. ALEXANDER - 1922 - Table of contents

Diccionario filosófico
Voltaire.
Complete edition

Diccionario de Filosofía
Brief definition of the most important concepts of philosophy.

 

A Dictionary of English Philosophical Terms Francis Garden

Biografías y semblanzas Biographical references and lives of philosophers

Brief introduction to the thought of Ortega y Gasset

History of Philosophy Summaries

Historia de la Filosofía
Explanation of the thought of the great philosophers; summaries, exercises...

Historia de la Filosofía
Digital edition of the History of Philosophy by Jaime Balmes

Historia de la Filosofía
Digital edition of the History of Philosophy by Zeferino González

Vidas, opiniones y sentencias de los filósofos más ilustres
Complete digital edition of the work of Diogenes Laertius

Compendio de las vidas de los filósofos antiguos
Fénelon

A brief history of Greek Philosophy
B. C. Burt

 

A SHORT HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY

 

INTRODUCTION

Part I. GREEK PHILOSOPHY


Its origin and character

PHYSICAL PERIOD
MONASTIC THEORIES
PLURALISTIC THEORIES

MORAL PERIOD
THE SOPHISTS
SOCRATES. Cynics and Cyrenaics

SYSTEMATIC PERIOD
PLATO
ARISTOTLE

Part II. PHILOSOPHY IN THE GRECO-ROMAN WORLD

ETHICAL THEORIES
Stoicism. Epicureanism
Scepticism

RELIGIOUS TENDENCIES
Roman Moralists: Seneca, Epictetus, M. Aurelius
Alexandrian Mystics: Philo, Plotinus, Proclus

Part III. PHILOSOPHY OF MIDDLE AGES

THE PATRISTIC PERIOD Augustine and Church Fathers

SCHOLASTIC PERIOD Nominalism and Realism

PLATONIC INFLUENCE
Anselm, Abelard, Peter Lombard

ARISTOTELIAN INFLUENCE
1. Alexander of Hales, Albertus Magnus, Thomas Aquinas
2. Duns Scotus, Francis of Assisi, William of Occam
 

Part IV. REVIVAL OF PHILOSOPHY

TRANSITION PERIOD
1. Revival of Learning
2. Reformation
3. Rise of Sciences
Bruno, Böhme, Montaigne

REALISTIC TENDENCY
Bacon
Gassendi
Hobbes

IDEALISTIC TENDENCY
Descartes

PANTHEISTIC TENDENCY
Geulinx, Occasionalism
Malebranche, Pantheism
Spinoza, Acosmism

Part V. PHILOSOPHY OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT

[Introduction]

SECT. I. ENLIGHTENMENT IN BRITAIN
Empiricism-Locke
Development of empiricism-Berkeley
Sceptical Conclusion-Hume

THEOLOGICAL AND ETHICAL QUESTIONS
Natural Philosophy
Theological Controversy
Ethical Theories
Scottish Philosophy

SECT. 2. ENLIGHTENMENT IN FRANCE
Earlier Rationalism
Bossuet, Fontenelle, Bayle, Montesquieu, Condillac, Helvetius
Materialistic Tendencies
Voltaire, Diderot, D'Alembert,  La Mettrie, Holbach, Rousseau

SECT. 3. ENLIGHTENMENT IN GERMANY
INDIVIDUAL IDEALISM—LEIBNITZ

FOLLOWERS OF LEIBNITZ
Thomasius, Tschirnhausen, Wolff

POPULAR PHILOSOPHY
Mendelssohn, Nicolai
Lessing

Part VI. GERMAN IDEALISM


SECT. I. CRITICAL PHILOSOPHY—KANT
INTRODUCTION

KANT'S THEORETIC PHILOSOPHY

KANT'S MORAL PHILOSOPHY

PHILOSOPHY OF ART AND RELIGION

SECT. 2. DEVELOPMENT OF IDEALISM

PHILOSOPHY OF FEELING
Hamann, Herder, Jacobi
Schiller and Humboldt

SUBJECTIVE IDEALISM—FICHTE
1. Science of Knowledge
2. Its Theoretic Principles
3. Its Practical Sphere

OBJECTIVE IDEALISM—SCHELLING
1. Philosophy of Nature
2. Philosophy of Identity
3. Mythology and Revelation

ROMANTIC SCHOOL
1. Novalis and Schlegel
2. Baader and Krause
3. Schleiermacher

 

SECT. 3. ABSOLUTE IDEALISM—HEGELIANISM
CONCEPTION AND METHOD
STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
REACTION AGAINST HEGELIANISM
1. Herbart
2. Beneke
3. Schopenhauer

Part VII. MOVEMENTS SINCE HEGEL TO THE PRESENT


GERMAN THOUGHT—AFTER HEGEL
1. Influence of Hegelianism
2. Materialistic Tendency—Haeckel
3. Idealistic Tendency
Fechner, Lotze, Hartmann, Wundt
4. Modern Psychology
5. Neo-Kantianism
Dühring, Schuppe, Ritschl
6. Eucken and Activist Tendency

FRENCH THOUGHT—FROM THE REVOLUTION
1. Cousin and Eclecticism
2. Comte and Positivism
3. Religious Philosophy
4. Philosophy of Development—Taine, Renan, Fouillée

BRITISH PHILOSOPHY IN THE VICTORIAN ERA
1. Utilitarianism—Bentham and Mill
2. Evolution—Darwin and Spencer. Maurice, Newman, Martineau
3. Influence of German Idealism. Caird, Green, Bradley, etc.

THE TREND OF THOUGHT IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY
Anti-Conceptualism—Bergson
Pragmatism—Wm. James
Neo-Realism. Revival of Idealism in Italy. The Philosophy of the Gifford Lectures

 

CONCLUSION

 

BOOKS OF REFERENCE

 

Part V. THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT
Sect. 1. British Enlightenment

Chap. IV. Theological and Ethical questions
[1. Natural Philosophy]

 

The Empiricism of Locke, which was developed on its theoretic side, by Berkeley and Hume, to its natural conclusion, gave rise to various movements of thought, scientific, theological, and ethical, which now demand our attention. The influence of Locke's mind may be traced in the general view of the world which Newton took as well as in the physiological researches of Hartley and Priestley, while the Deism of Toland and the Moral theory of Shaftesbury were largely affected, on the one hand by his work on the Reasonableness of Christianity, and on the other by his Denial of the Doctrine of Innate Ideas.

1. Natural Philosophy. Though the discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton, the greatest of natural philosophers, do not strictly belong to the history of mental philosophy, a name so illustrious and epoch-making cannot be passed over without mention. Newton was born in 1642, a year memorable in English history for the breaking out of the Civil War, and doubly notable in the history of science for the birth of Newton and the death of Galileo. He was educated at Cambridge, where he ultimately became Professor of Mathematics. Newton represents the culmination of a long series of scientific efforts which, from the time of Aristotle, had been made to explain the mechanical forces of nature and to reduce the movements of the heavenly bodies to a single principle. It is the glory of Newton to have crowned the labours of a Kepler and a Galileo with success, and though in science more perhaps than in any other department of human effort, each new worker builds on the results of his predecessors, Newton's name is for ever distinguished as that of the discoverer of the great law of gravitation, as the principle by which bodies, terrestrial and celestial, are governed, first casually suggested by the fall of an apple, but ultimately mathematically proved.

While Newton for the most part confined his attention to purely physical subjects, and did not inquire into the inner meaning of the world whose forces he computed, it is noteworthy that he combined with his strictly scientific reasoning a deep and reverent piety, seeing in the wonderful order and arrangement of the universe the surest proof of an intelligent creator. His theory of knowledge was accepted from Locke, but he recognised that God contained all things in Himself, and that He is the ultimate source of all being.

Newton's Principia profoundly influenced not science only, but every realm of knowledge. It is difficult for us to-day to realize how largely this new conception of the physical world bulked in the thought of the eighteenth century. What the idea of evolution has been to our own generation the law of gravitation was to the age of Newton. it directed and coloured the whole theological outlook of the times, and became a kind of standing illustration of man's relation to God.

Locke's theory of the association of ideas gave rise to the associational psychology of which David Hartley (1705-1757) and Joseph Priestley (1733-1804) are the chief representatives. If the mind is passive and dependent on outward things for its sensations, may thought not be explained on physiological and semi-material principles? The connection of the mental processes with certain states of the body, and the mutual relation of psychical functions and nerve-vibrations, suggested a materialistic theory in which the mechanism of the nervous system was regarded as the primary cause of thought and will. At the same time, these writers did not press their theory to its logical conclusion. They strove to reconcile their psychology with a belief in the immortality of the soul and the divine origin of the world. Priestley especially strongly opposed the atheism of Holbach, and is associated with the Deists in his advocacy of natural religion.

Modern philosophy. Empiricism. Hume                              Enlightenment in Britain. Theological Controversy

 

 

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