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A SHORT HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY

ARCHIBALD B. D. ALEXANDER - 1922 - Table of contents

Diccionario filosófico
Voltaire.
Complete edition

Diccionario de Filosofía
Brief definition of the most important concepts of philosophy.

 

A Dictionary of English Philosophical Terms Francis Garden

Biografías y semblanzas Biographical references and lives of philosophers

Brief introduction to the thought of Ortega y Gasset

History of Philosophy Summaries

Historia de la Filosofía
Explanation of the thought of the great philosophers; summaries, exercises...

Historia de la Filosofía
Digital edition of the History of Philosophy by Jaime Balmes

Historia de la Filosofía
Digital edition of the History of Philosophy by Zeferino González

Vidas, opiniones y sentencias de los filósofos más ilustres
Complete digital edition of the work of Diogenes Laertius

Compendio de las vidas de los filósofos antiguos
Fénelon

A brief history of Greek Philosophy
B. C. Burt

 

A SHORT HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY

 

INTRODUCTION

Part I. GREEK PHILOSOPHY


Its origin and character

PHYSICAL PERIOD
MONASTIC THEORIES
PLURALISTIC THEORIES

MORAL PERIOD
THE SOPHISTS
SOCRATES. Cynics and Cyrenaics

SYSTEMATIC PERIOD
PLATO
ARISTOTLE

Part II. PHILOSOPHY IN THE GRECO-ROMAN WORLD

ETHICAL THEORIES
Stoicism. Epicureanism
Scepticism

RELIGIOUS TENDENCIES
Roman Moralists: Seneca, Epictetus, M. Aurelius
Alexandrian Mystics: Philo, Plotinus, Proclus

Part III. PHILOSOPHY OF MIDDLE AGES

THE PATRISTIC PERIOD Augustine and Church Fathers

SCHOLASTIC PERIOD Nominalism and Realism

PLATONIC INFLUENCE
Anselm, Abelard, Peter Lombard

ARISTOTELIAN INFLUENCE
1. Alexander of Hales, Albertus Magnus, Thomas Aquinas
2. Duns Scotus, Francis of Assisi, William of Occam
 

Part IV. REVIVAL OF PHILOSOPHY

TRANSITION PERIOD
1. Revival of Learning
2. Reformation
3. Rise of Sciences
Bruno, Böhme, Montaigne

REALISTIC TENDENCY
Bacon
Gassendi
Hobbes

IDEALISTIC TENDENCY
Descartes

PANTHEISTIC TENDENCY
Geulinx, Occasionalism
Malebranche, Pantheism
Spinoza, Acosmism

Part V. PHILOSOPHY OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT

[Introduction]

SECT. I. ENLIGHTENMENT IN BRITAIN
Empiricism-Locke
Development of empiricism-Berkeley
Sceptical Conclusion-Hume

THEOLOGICAL AND ETHICAL QUESTIONS
Natural Philosophy
Theological Controversy
Ethical Theories
Scottish Philosophy

SECT. 2. ENLIGHTENMENT IN FRANCE
Earlier Rationalism
Bossuet, Fontenelle, Bayle, Montesquieu, Condillac, Helvetius
Materialistic Tendencies
Voltaire, Diderot, D'Alembert,  La Mettrie, Holbach, Rousseau

SECT. 3. ENLIGHTENMENT IN GERMANY
INDIVIDUAL IDEALISM—LEIBNITZ

FOLLOWERS OF LEIBNITZ
Thomasius, Tschirnhausen, Wolff

POPULAR PHILOSOPHY
Mendelssohn, Nicolai
Lessing

Part VI. GERMAN IDEALISM


SECT. I. CRITICAL PHILOSOPHY—KANT
INTRODUCTION

KANT'S THEORETIC PHILOSOPHY

KANT'S MORAL PHILOSOPHY

PHILOSOPHY OF ART AND RELIGION

SECT. 2. DEVELOPMENT OF IDEALISM

PHILOSOPHY OF FEELING
Hamann, Herder, Jacobi
Schiller and Humboldt

SUBJECTIVE IDEALISM—FICHTE
1. Science of Knowledge
2. Its Theoretic Principles
3. Its Practical Sphere

OBJECTIVE IDEALISM—SCHELLING
1. Philosophy of Nature
2. Philosophy of Identity
3. Mythology and Revelation

ROMANTIC SCHOOL
1. Novalis and Schlegel
2. Baader and Krause
3. Schleiermacher

 

SECT. 3. ABSOLUTE IDEALISM—HEGELIANISM
CONCEPTION AND METHOD
STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
REACTION AGAINST HEGELIANISM
1. Herbart
2. Beneke
3. Schopenhauer

Part VII. MOVEMENTS SINCE HEGEL TO THE PRESENT


GERMAN THOUGHT—AFTER HEGEL
1. Influence of Hegelianism
2. Materialistic Tendency—Haeckel
3. Idealistic Tendency
Fechner, Lotze, Hartmann, Wundt
4. Modern Psychology
5. Neo-Kantianism
Dühring, Schuppe, Ritschl
6. Eucken and Activist Tendency

FRENCH THOUGHT—FROM THE REVOLUTION
1. Cousin and Eclecticism
2. Comte and Positivism
3. Religious Philosophy
4. Philosophy of Development—Taine, Renan, Fouillée

BRITISH PHILOSOPHY IN THE VICTORIAN ERA
1. Utilitarianism—Bentham and Mill
2. Evolution—Darwin and Spencer. Maurice, Newman, Martineau
3. Influence of German Idealism. Caird, Green, Bradley, etc.

THE TREND OF THOUGHT IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY
Anti-Conceptualism—Bergson
Pragmatism—Wm. James
Neo-Realism. Revival of Idealism in Italy. The Philosophy of the Gifford Lectures

 

CONCLUSION

 

BOOKS OF REFERENCE

 

Part IV. REVIVAL OF PHILOSOPHY

Chap. IV. Pantheism. Malebranche

2. With this position is closely connected that of the French priest, Nikolas Malebranche (1638-1715), whose chief work is De la Recherche de la Verité. This devout Catholic, whose meditative spirit was fostered in the cloister, though an ardent disciple of Descartes, was only restrained by the traditions of the Church from carrying the principles of his master to their utmost consequences. According to Malebranche, God is the mirror in which we behold the outer world. The ideas of things are derived neither from the soul nor from the things themselves. The spirit apprehends the world through a third being,—God,—who contains all thoughts and all things in Himself. The idea of the infinite is prior to the idea of the finite. God does not derive His being from His creatures, but all His creatures are imperfect manifestations of Him.

 

God is indeed the only cause of all that happens, the source of all being, both physical and spiritual. But in Himself He must be conceived as neither physical nor spiritual. He alone moves our bodies and is the inspiration of our minds. It is really the thought of the good which moves our will. God is the highest and only true good, and, therefore, even when seeking material and temporal benefit, man is really seeking God.

While the first part of Malebranche's work is metaphysical, dealing with the origin of our knowledge, the greater part is experimental and devotional, and as such is full of many beautiful and suggestive sentiments touching the soul's attitude to God. "God is the home of Spirits." "The true will of man is love to God." "The light which God has implanted in us impels us to seek Him who is its source." "The object of the union of our spirit with the Word of God, and of our will with His love, is to create in us His own image and mould our souls to His likeness." "The love of God consists in directing our affections to the idea of God. He who knows himself and clearly perceives his affections, loves God. There is nothing true but God. All truths, which are eternal and unchangeable and stand above the fleeting things of time, exist in the mind of God; therefore, to know the truth is to see God." There is, in short, no other knowledge but the knowledge of God, and only as we know ourselves and the world in God, do we know them truly. Unless we saw God we should not be able to see anything else.

Thus, though Malebranche started with the principle of Cartesianism, the path he entered could lead only, if followed further, to pantheism. This final step was taken by one who brought to its legitimate conclusion the line of thought which Descartes started—Spinoza—who sought to restore to its original unity that which had been sundered in thought.

It would seem to be something more than a coincidence that a Jew should develop the philosophy of idealism to its ultimate issue. Absolute unity and abstract monotheism are ideas peculiarly characteristic of the oriental mind, and it was not unnatural that one who was specially fitted by nationality, disposition, and education, should be the agent to introduce into Europe the idea of an absolute unity in which the differences of the finite and infinite are merged.

Modern philosophy. Pantheistic tendency. Geulinx          Modern philosophy. Pantheistic tendency. Spinoza

 

 

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