AVERAGES.—Calculable proportions in view of all the variety of conditions
concerned in occurrences. This is described in Logic as the doctrine of
Probabilities (Quetelet, On Probabilities, transl. Downes; De Morgan, Cambridge
"Chance may be described as the amount of belief with which we expect
one or other out of two or more uncertain events " (Thomson's Laws of
Thought, 3rd ed., p. 331).
As applicable to the occurrence of crime, as of accident, Lotze says:—"As soon
as we know that the general economy of the universe apparently requires yearly a
certain average of crime just as much as a certain average of temperature, we
can hardly help seeing even in intellectual life the unbroken
sequence of a blind mechanism" (Microcosmus, translation, I. 25).