VOCABULARY OF PHILOSOPHY
PSYCHOLOGICAL, ETHICAL, METAPHYSICAL
WITH QUOTATIONS AND REFERENCES
WILLIAM FLEMING, D.D.
FORMERLY PROFESSOR OF MORAL PHILOSOPHY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF GLASGOW
REVISED AND LARGELY RECONSTRUCTED BY
HENRY CALDERWOOD, LL.D.
PROFESSOR OF MORAL PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH
NEW YORK: SCRIBNER AND WELFORD
743 AND 745 BROADWAY. 1890.
PREFACE TO FOURTH EDITION
In preparing a new edition of Professor Fleming’s Vocabulary of Philosophy, it has been found impossible to adhere to the plan adopted in last edition, of retaining the form in which the book came from the Author’s hands. Such an interval has elapsed since his death, and so many important additions have been made to philosophic literature since that time, that a reconstruction of the work had become needful.
In undertaking the task of revision, the objects contemplated have been the following:—(1) to indicate variations in usage that have occurred in the history of philosophic terms; (2) to guide students in their use of a large library by ample references to the literature of the subject; (3) to meet urgent demands in course of study by selecting appropriate quotations from standard authors. In prosecuting revision with these objects in view, quotations have been withdrawn which seemed of secondary importance. Fully one half of the book is new, bringing it quite up to the date of publication.
An intention formed at the outset of showing in the text the new matter introduced was early abandoned, because of the risk of encumbering the page by constant reappearance of brackets.
Throughout the laborious work of revision, verification, and selection of extracts I have been very ably supported by Mr James Seth, M.A., whom I, with the consent of all concerned, appointed Assistant Editor. Mr Seth was Baxter Scholar in Philosophy in this University in 1881; became Ferguson Scholar in Philosophy in 1882, in competition open to all the Scotch Universities; and was Assistant to my colleague, Professor A. Campbell Fraser, Professor of Logic and Metaphysics. Mr Seth undertook revision of all the logical terms, and, besides continuous work over the whole book, has contributed occasional articles, marked with his initials. Since beginning the duties of Assistant Editor, Mr Seth has been appointed Professor of Mental Philosophy in Dalhousie College, Halifax, Nova Scotia.
In addition to the aid given by Mr Seth, I have had the advantage of revision of MS. and contribution of several articles, marked [J. W.], by my former Class Assistant, Mr James Weir, M.A., Vans Dunlop Scholar in Logic and Metaphysics, 1882; and I have had further valuable help in careful revision of proofs by my present Class Assistant, Mr William Mitchell, M.A., Vans Dunlop Scholar in Moral Philosophy, 1886. To these three gentlemen I tender publicly my warmest thanks for unwearied and efficient service in the preparation of the present edition, and in the endeavour to secure accuracy throughout the list of references.
UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH, December 24th, 1886.
The Editor will feel obligation to those using the Vocabulary if they report to him any error detected in the references.
PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION
The fact that the Vocabulary of Philosophy by the late-Professor Fleming soon passed through two editions shows that it has supplied a want felt by those entering upon philosophic study. Recognising this, I have willingly responded to the request to edit a new issue of the work.
My purpose has been to retain the book as nearly as possible in the form in which it came from the hands of Professor Fleming. Occasionally I have withdrawn some quotations, when their numbers seemed too large. Additional manuscript left by Professor Fleming has been carefully examined, and some part of the new matter has been introduced. Vocables have been inserted, the absence of which left a blank in a Vocabulary of Philosophy.
In only one thing have I thought it needful to depart from Professor Fleming’s plan. I have ventured to introduce definitions of the leading vocables. These definitions constitute the new feature in the edition now published, and are enclosed within brackets, to indicate the portions for which I must be held responsible.
THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH, 11th September 1876.
ABILITY and INABILITY | ABSCISSIO INFINITE | ABSOLUTE | ABSTINENCE | ABSTRACTION | ABSURD | ACADEMY | ACATALEPSY | ACCIDENT | ACOSMIST | ACHROMATIC | ACTION | ACTIVE POWERS | ACTUAL | ADEQUATE | ADMIRATION | ADSCITITIOUS | AESTHETICS | AETIOLOGY | AFFECTION | AFFERENT | AFFIRMATION | A FORTIORI | AGNOIOLOGY|AGNOSTICISM | ALTRUISM | AMBITION | AMPHIBOLY | ANALOGUE | ANALOGY| ANALYSIS | ANALYTICS | ANIM MUNDI | ANIMISM | ANTECEDENT | ANTHROPOLOGY | ANTHROPOMORPHISM | ANTICIPATION | ANTINOMY | ANTIPATHY | APAGOGICAL | A PARTE ANTE, and A PARTE POST | APATHY | APHORISM | APODEICTIC | APOLOGUE | APOLOGY | APOPHTHEGM | APPEARANCE | APPERCEPTION | APPETITE | APPREHENSION | APPROBATION (Moral) | A PRIORI | ARBOR PORPHYRIANA—V. PORPHYRY (TREE OF) | ARCHÆUS | ARCHETYPE | ARCHITECTONIC | ARGUMENT | ARGUMENTATION | ART | ASCETICISM | ASSENT | ASSERTION | ASSERTORY | ASSOCIATION | ASSUMPTION | ATHEISM | ATOMISM | ATTENTION | ATTRIBUTE | AUTHENTIC | AUTHORITY | AUTOCRASY | AUTOMATON | AUTONOMY | AVERAGES | AXIOM
CAPACITY | CARDINAL | CASUISTRY | CATEGOREMATIC | CATEGORICAL.— V. PROPOSITION | CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE | CATEGORY | CAUSE, CAUSATION, CAUSALITY | CAUSES (Occasional, Doctrine of) | CERTAINTY, CERTITUDE | CHANCE | CHARITY | CHASTITY | CHOICE | CIVILITY OR COURTEOUSNESS | CLASSIFICATION | COGNITION | COLLIGATION OF FACTS | COMBINATION AND CONNECTION OF IDEAS | COMMON SENSE | COMMON.—V. TERM | COMMUNISM | COMPACT | COMPARISON | COMPASSION.—V. SYMPATHY | COMPLEX | COMPREHENSION | COMPUNCTION | CONCEPTION | CONCEPTUALISM | CONCLUSION | CONCRETE | CONDITION | CONDITIONAL.— V. PROPOSITION, SYLLOGISM | CONDITIONED (Law of the) | CONGRUITY | CONJUNCTIVE | CONNATE— V. INNATE | CONNOTATION | CONSCIENCE | CONSCIOUSNESS | CONSENT | CONSENT, UNIVERSAL | CONSEQUENCE, CONSEQUENT | CONSERVATIVE FACULTY | CONSILIENCE of INDUCTIONS | CONSTITUTIVE | CONTEMPLATION | CONTINENCE | CONTINGENT | CONTINUITY (Law of) | CONTRACT | CONTRADICTION (Principle, Law, or Axiom of) | CONTRADICTORY | CONTRAPOSITION | CONTRARY | CONVERSION | COPULA (The) | COROLLARY | CORRECTIVE.— V. PUNISHMENT | CORRELATE.— V. RELATION | COSMOGONY | COSMOTHETIC IDEALISTS | COSMOLOGY, Rational | COURAGE | CRANIOLOGY | CREATION | CREDIBILITY.— V. TESTIMONY | CREDULITY | CRITERION | CRITICISM, CRITIQUE (Kritik) | CRUCIAL INSTANC | CUMULATIVE (The Argument) | CUSTOM (Consuetudo) | CYNIC | CYRENAIC
DÆMON | DARWINIAN THEORY—DARWINISM.— V. EVOLUTION | DATUM | DEDUCTION | DE FACTO and DE JURE | DEFINITION | DEIST | DEMERIT.—V. MERIT | DEMIURGE | DEMONSTRATION | DEONTOLOGY | DESCENT.—V. EVOLUTION | DESCRIPTION | DESERT.— V. MERIT | DESIGN | DESIRE | DESTINY | DETERMINISM | DETERRENT.— V. PUNISHMENT | DEVELOPMENT.— V. EVOLUTION | DIALECTIC | DICHOTOMY | DICTUM DE OMNI ET NULLO | DICTUM SIMPLICITER | DIFFERENCE | DIFFERENTIATION | DILEMMA | DISCURSIVE | DISJUNCTIVE | DISPOSITION | DISSOLUTION | DISTANCE | DISTINCT | DISTINCTION | DISTRIBUTION | DISTRIBUTIVE (Justice).— V. JUSTICE | DIVISION | DOGMA | DOGMATISM | DOUBT | DREAMING | DUALISM | DUALITY of CONSCIOUSNESS | DURATION | DUTY | DYNAMIC | DYNAMICAL
ECLECTICISM | ECONOMICS | ECONOMY | ECSTASY | EDUCATION | EFFECT | EFFERENT | EFFICIENT | CAUSE.— V. CAUSE | EGO,—I,—The SELF | EGOISM | EJECT | ELABORATIVE FACULTY | ELECTION | ELEMENT | ELEMENTOLOGY.— V. METHODOLOGY, LOGIC | ELIMINATION | EMANATION | EMINENTER | EMOTION | EMPIRIC, EMPIRICISM | EMULATION | END | END-IN-HIMSELF | ENERGY | ENTELECHY | ENTHUSIASM | ENTHYMEME | ENTITY | ENVIRONMENT | ENVY | EPICHEIREMA | EPICUREANISM | EPISTEMOLOGY | EPISYLLOGISM | EQUANIMITY | EQUATION | EQUIPOLLENCE— V. PERMUTATION | EQUITY | EQUIVOCAL | EQUIVOCATION | ERROR | ESOTERIC | ESSENCE | ETERNITY | ETERNITY OF GOD’S EXISTENCE | ETHICS | ETHNOGRAPHY, ETHNOLOGY | EUDÆMONISM | EVIDENCE | EVIL | EVIL, ORIGIN OF | EVOLUTION | EXAMPLE.— V. ANALOGY, INSTANCE | EXCEPTION | EXCLUDED MIDDLE (Principle, Law, or Axiom of) | EXISTENCE | EXOTERIC— V. ESOTERIC | EXPEDIENCY | EXPERIENCE | EXPERIMENT | EXPERIMENTUM CRUCIS | EXPLANATION | EXPLICATIVE | EXPLICIT | EXTENSION | EXTERNALITY or OUTNESS
FACT | FACTITIOUS | FACULTY | FAITH.— V. BELIEF | FALLACY (A) | FALSE, FALSITY | FAMILY (The) | FANCY | FATALISM | FEAR | FECHNER’S LAW.— V. PSYCHO-PHYSICS | FEELING | FELICITY | FETICHISM | FIGURE.— V. SYLLOGISM | FIGURATIVE CONCEPTION | FINAL CAUSE | FINITE.— V. INFINITE | FIRST CAUSE | FITNESS and UNFITNESS | FORCE | FORM | FORMAL | FORMAL CAUSE.—V. CAUSE, FORM | FORMALITER.— V. EMINENTER | FORMAL LOGIC—V. LOGIC | FORTITUDE | FREEDOM | FREE-THINKER | FREE-WILL | FRIENDSHIP | FULL (The).— V. ATOMISM | FUNCTION | FUNDAMENTUM DIVISIONIS.— V. DIVISION
GENERAL TERM | GENERALISATION | GENERIC IMAGES.— V. CONCEPTION, ABSTRACTION. | GENIUS | GENUINE | GENUS | GNOSTICISM | GOD | GOOD | GOOD (The Chief) | GRAMMAR (Universal) | GRANDEUR | GRATITUDE | GRIEF
HABIT | HALLUCINATION | HAPPINESS | HAPPINESS THEORY OF MORALS | HARMONY | HARMONY (of the Spheres) | HATE | HEDONISM | HEREDITY | HETEROGENEITY, HETERONOMY | HISTORY (Philosophy of) | The HOBBISM | HOLINESS | HOMOGENEITY | HOMOLOGUE | HOMOTYPE | HUMANITY (Religion of) | HUMOUR | HYLOZOISM | HYPOSTASIS.— V. ENTITY, SUBSISTENTIA | HYPOTHESIS | HYPOTHETICAL | HYPOTHETICAL DUALIST.— V. COSMOTHETIC IDEALIST
IDEA | IDEAL | IDEAL LEGALITY | IDEALISM | IDEATION | The IDENTICAL PROPOSITION | IDENTITY (Philosophy of) | IDENTITY (Personal) | IDENTITY (Law, Axiom, or Principle of) | IDEOLOGY | IDIOSYNCRASY | IDOL | IGNORANCE | ILLATION | ILLICIT | ILLUMINATI | ILLUMINATION | ILLUSION | IMAGINATION | IMITATION | IMMANENT | IMMATERIALISM | IMMEDIATE | IMMEDIATE INFERENCE | IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL | IMMUTABILITY | IMPENETRABILITY | IMPERATIVE | IMPLICIT | IMPOSSIBLE (The) | IMPRESSION | IMPULSE | INABILITY.— V. ABILITY | INADEQUATE.— V. ADEQUATE | INCLINATION | INDEFINITE | INDIFFERENCE (Liberty of) | INDIFFERENT | INDIRECT (Proof).— V. ABSURD | INDISCERNIBLES (Identity of) | INDISTINCT.— V. DISTINCT | INDIVIDUALITY | INDIVIDUATION | INDIVIDUALISM | INDUCTION | INDUCTIVE METHODS or CANONS | INERTIA | IN ESSE | IN POSSE | INFERENCE | INFIMA SPECIES.— V. SPECIES | INFINITE | INFLUX (Physical) | INJURY | INNATE (IDEAS) | INSTINCT | INTEGRATION.— V. DIFFERENTIATION, EVOLUTION | INTELLECT | INTENSION.— V. COMPREHENSION | INTENTION | INTEREST | INTERNAL or INNER SENSE.— V. REFLECTION | INTERPRETATION of NATURE | INTROSPECTION | INTUITION | INTUITIONALISM | INVENTION | IRONY